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<table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tr> <td height="32" class="left_bg"> <table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tr> <td width="40" align="center"><img src="/homes/images3/laifang.gif" align="absmiddle" width="20"></td> <td class="title">最˜q‘来è®?/td> <td width="50" ></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr><td height="200" valign="top" align="center"> </td></tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr><td height="10"></td></tr> </table> </td> <td width="10"></td> <td width="742" valign="top" align="center"> <table width="742" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tr> <td class="solid-rw"> <table width="742" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tr> <td height="32" class="center_bg"> <table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tr> <td width="56" align="center"><img src=/homes/images/zhuanzai.gif border=0></td> <td width="567" align="left"><span class="title">¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯发泡成型探è®?/span>   <font color=#999999>(2020/3/2 8:48:40)</font></td> <td width="119" style="font-family:'宋体';"><img src="/space/images/zhuanlan.jpg" align="absmiddle"> <a href="/space/blog_post.asp" class="link3">发表博文</a></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr><td height="" valign="top" align="center"> <table width="98%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="left"> <tr> <td height="8"></td> </tr> <tr><td align="center" height="100" valign="top"> <table width="99%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="center"> <tr><td class=red_2 align=left></td></tr> <tr> <td align="left"> <table width="98%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="center"> <tr> <td class="style_14_666666"> <div class="f401" id="f401"><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">æ‘?è¦? </strong>阐述了硬质聚氨酯泡沫的优点及在实际生‹zÕd·¥ä½œä¸­çš„运用,探讨了硬质聚氨酯泡沫的发泡工艺、成型方法,òq¶æ·±å…¥çš„分析 äº†ç¡¬è´¨èšæ°¨é…¯æ³¡æ²«åœ¨å‘泡成型中的媄响因素,以供参考ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;color:#003399;"><strong class="faqe">1 æ¦‚è¿°</strong></span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;">˜q‘几十年来,在生产和生活的各个领域,¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫的 äº§é‡òq´å¢žé•‰K€Ÿåº¦ååˆ†˜q…猛。有大量的气体、液体需要保温、保å†?nbsp;的条件下˜qè¾“、储存和输送。对于这些容器、设备、管¾U¿çš„保温ã€?nbsp;保冷åQŒä¼ ¾lŸçš„保温、保å†ähæ–™ï¼Œå¦‚石‹‚‰ã€çŸ¿æ¸£æ£‰ã€çç å²©ã€é”¯æœ«ã€æ²¥ é’、玻璃纤¾l´ç­‰åQŒéƒ½å­˜åœ¨è®¸å¤š¾~ºç‚¹åQŒè¿™äº›ä¿æ¸©ææ–™æ–½å·¥ç¨‹åºå¤æ‚, æ“ä½œä¸ä¾¿åQŒæœ‰äº›ææ–™å¯¹æ–½å·¥äººå‘˜çš„健庯‚¿˜æœ‰è¾ƒå¤§å±å®Ÿë€‚另外,˜q?nbsp;些保温材料的热导率较高,¾lçƒ­æ•ˆæžœå·®ï¼Œèƒ½é‡æŸè€—严重,使用寿命 è¾ƒçŸ­ã€‚相比之下,聚æ°}酯硬质æˆö沫热导率最低,òq¶èƒ½å¾ˆå¥½åœ°æ‘’å¼?nbsp;传统保温材料的缺点,ž®¤å…¶åœ¨ææ–™ç»çƒ­æ€§èƒ½æ–šw¢æ˜¯å…¶ä»–保温材æ–?nbsp;无法与之相比的。其主要应用于徏½{‘和集中供热行业åQŒå…¶‹Æ¡ç”¨äº?nbsp;冰箱冰柜½{‰åˆ¶å†¯‚®¾å¤‡ä»¥åŠè¿è¾“业的绝热保温材料ã€?nbsp;</span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;">随着¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫生产的逐渐成熟åQŒå¸‚åœÞZ¾›åº”的扩大åQŒç ” ½I¶å·¥ä½œä¸æ–­æ·±å…¥ï¼Œæ–°å“¿Uã€æ–°å·¥è‰ºç ”发、新讑֤‡çš„改˜q›ï¼Œä½¿ç¡¬è´¨èš æ°¨é…¯æ³¡æ²«å¡‘料得到了全面发展。在¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫制品的制备 å·¥è‰ºæŠ€æœ¯æ–¹é¢ï¼Œæå‡ºæ›´é«˜è¦æ±‚。普遍采用大型发泡设备,˜q›è¡Œå¤?nbsp;规模化、连¾l­åŒ–、自动化、系列化提高力_Š¨ç”Ÿäñ”率,降低成本åQŒå‡ž®?nbsp;原料单耗,采用计算机控制物料温度、流量、流速等各种参数来调 æ•´åˆ¶å¾—更优质的聚氨酯泡沫ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;color:#003399;"><strong class="faqe">2 ¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫的优点 </strong></span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">1) ¾lçƒ­æ•ˆæžœå¥½ã€?/strong>使用聚æ°}酯硬泡和聚异氰尿酸脂¼‹¬æˆöåQŒä¸ä»?nbsp;保温层薄而轻åQŒè€Œä¸”¾lçƒ­æ•ˆæžœä¼˜å¼‚ã€?nbsp;</span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">2) èšæ°}酯硬泡和聚异氰尿酸脂¼‹¬æˆöå…ähœ‰å¾ˆé«˜çš„闭孔率åQ?/strong>òq¶èƒ½ ç”Ÿäñ”密实的外表皮层,不易渗水åQŒé˜²æ°´æ•ˆæžœå¥½ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">3) çƒ­ç¨³å®šæ€§èƒ½å¥½ï¼Œå·¥ä½œæ¸©åº¦èŒƒå›´òqѝ€?/strong>新型聚æ°}酯硬泡和聚异 æ°°å°¿é…¸è„‚¼‹¬æˆö保温层可以在150 â„?nbsp;工况条äšg下长期工作,服务æœ?nbsp;可达 25 òq´ä¹‹ä¹…ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">4) è€åŒ–学性能好,不仅耐热保温åQŒè€Œä¸”å…ähœ‰è¾ƒå¥½çš„防腐功能ã€?/strong></span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">5) å¯ä»¥åœ¨å·¥åŽ‚中˜q›è¡Œå¤§è§„模机械化生äñ”åQŒæ•ˆçŽ‡é«˜åQŒè´¨é‡å¥½; æ–?nbsp;工简单方便,å¯ÒŽ–½å·¥äh员的健康无损伤、安全、可靠ã€?/strong></span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;color:#003399;"><strong class="faqe">3 ¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯发泡工è‰ÞZ¸Žæˆåž‹ </strong></span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;">¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫塑料发泡分三种: é¢„聚体法、半预聚体法、一 æ­¥æ³•ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">1) é¢„聚体法: </strong>通常是把½{‰ä†¾çš„聚醚和异氰酔R…¯æ··åˆååº”生成 ä½Žåˆ†å­èšåˆç‰©é¢„聚体,然后åQŒå°†æ°´å’Œé¢„聚体在搅拌下反应生成脲 åŸºï¼Œå½¢æˆé«˜èšç‰©ã€‚由于在反应中生成二氧化¼„»I¼Œå½¢æˆé“‘Ö¢žé•¿å‘æ³?nbsp;生成泡沫塑料ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">2) åŠé¢„聚体法制预聚ä½?</strong> æ˜¯æŠŠä¸€éƒ¨åˆ†èšé†šå’Œè¿‡é‡å¼‚氰酸酯æ؜ åˆååº”,生成ç”׃¸€å®šç²˜åº¦çš„低分子量聚合物,ž®†å¤šä½™éƒ¨åˆ†çš„聚醚与水、催化剂和表面活性剂高速搅拌æ؜合均匀后åŞ成的¼‹¬è´¨æˆ–半 ¼‹¬è´¨æ³¡æ²«å¡‘æ–™ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">3) ä¸€æ­¥æ³•: </strong>是把聚醚、异氰酸酯及其他¾l„分同时全部混合è€?制得泡沫塑料。一步法刉™€ å·¥è‰ºç®€å•æ˜“操作åQŒä¸¾låŠ å·¥å¯ç›´æŽ¥ä½?用,能在室温下进行,各原料相互间的æ؜溶性好发æˆö后的制品æ€?能优良ã€?nbsp;</span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;">¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫塑料的发æˆö工艺通常在发泡设备中ž®†èšé†?或聚合多元醇、异氰酸酯、水、催化剂、表面活性剂½{‰æŒ‰æ¯”例配方 混合制成液体原料åQŒå…·æœ‰ä¸€å®šç²˜åº¦ï¼Œåœ¨é«˜é€Ÿæ…æ‹Œæ؜合后反应åQŒåˆ†åˆ?ç”Þp®¡é‡æ܇按比例在混合室内高速æ؜合,喷射到模具制备中åQŒåœ¨ä¸€ 定温度下固化后åŞ成聚氨酯泡沫塑料。现在工业制造中多用一 步法来制得不同支铄¡±»åž‹çš„预聚体ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;">¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫塑料最½Ž€å•çš„发æˆö成型æ–ÒŽ³•æ˜¯æ‰‹å·¥å‘泡法åQ?nbsp;原料按比例置于一容器中,高速搅拌æ؜合均匀åQŒæ³¨å…¥å……å¡«æˆö沫塑 料的½Iºé—´ä¸­ï¼Œå¾…化学反应固化完形成聚æ°}酯æˆö沫,其原料利用率 低,适用于在实验室中的科研、现åœÞZÍ时施工。然而在大批量生 产中则采用机械发泡,æœ? å—状发æˆö˜qžç®‹æˆåž‹ã€æµ‡½{‘发泡、喷涂发 泡等工艺。最通用的成型方法是‹¹‡ç­‘发æˆö、喷涂发泡、连¾l­æˆåž?发æˆö。不同发泡工艺制得的泡沫性能也大不同åQŒåŞ状、外观等ä¹?不同ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;color:#003399;"><strong class="faqe">4 ¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯发泡成型的影响</strong></span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">1) åŽŸæ–™:</strong> èšé†šå’Œèšé…¯éƒ½ä½œäؓ发æˆö成型的组分。聚醚多元醇ä¸?异氰酔R…¯çš„比例不同,可制得èÊYè´¨æˆö沫、半¼‹¬è´¨æ³¡æ²«ã€ç¡¬è´¨æˆö沫。原料温度的高低直接影响计量配比的精准性,同时影响物料¾_˜åº¦ 大小。一旦粘度变化,å¯ÆD‡´è®¡é‡æ³ëŠš„输出¾_‘Öº¦å‘生变化åQŒä¸¥é‡åª„ 响制品的质量。聚醚多元醇¾l„分偏大åQŒæ‰€å¾—æˆö沫塑料èÊYåQŒé«˜æ¸©ä¸‹ ž®ºå¯¸½E›_®šæ€§å·®; å¼‚æ°°é…”R…¯¾l„分偏高åQŒæˆö沫塑料硬而脆ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">2) æ¸©åº¦:</strong> å‘æˆö成型˜q‡ç¨‹ä¸­ï¼Œæ–™æ¸©å’ŒçŽ¯å¢ƒæ¸©åº¦çš„高低直接影响 泡沫塑料制品的质量。而长期储存和温度变化对异氰酸酯也å¾?不利。异氰酸酯中二聚物的存在åQŒä‹É异氰酔R…¯å˜åŒ–得浑‹¹Šä¸æ¸…, ä¹Ÿå¹²æ‰°æ­£å¸¸ååº”。在生äñ”中,温度低,发æˆö反应¾~“æ…¢åQŒæˆö沫固化时 间长; æ¸©åº¦é«˜ï¼Œåˆ™å‘泡反应快åQŒæˆö沫固化时间短ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">3) æ³¨å°„温度、速度和压åŠ?</strong> åœ¨æ³¨æ¨¡ä¹‹å‰ï¼Œè¦è¿›è¡Œé«˜åŽ‹åó@环,ä»?致物料温度因高压˜qåŠ¨åQŒä‹É温度上升åQŒæ‰€ä»¥æ³¨æ–™æ¸©åº¦ä¸ŽåŽŸæ–™è´®è— 温度是不同的。它取决于åó@环时间与压力åQŒæ³¨æ–™é€Ÿåº¦å¯¹åŽŸæ–™çš„æ·?合äñ”生较大媄响。一般注料速度快和冲压高,可制得优质æˆöæ²?制品ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">4) æ¨¡å…·æ¸©åº¦:</strong> æ˜¯å‘泡成型的关键因素åQŒå¯ç›´æŽ¥å½±å“æ³¡æ²«çš„äã^ 白、拉丝、不¾_˜ã€å›ºåŒ–速度åQŒå› æ­¤å¿…™åÖM¸¥æ ¼æŽ§åˆ¶ã€‚发泡成型是一ä¸?化学反应攄¡ƒ­˜q‡ç¨‹åQŒæ”¾å‡ºçš„热量使发泡剂汽化åQŒåœ¨èšæ°}酯填充空腔中¾˜ÀL»šæŒ¤åŽ‹è€ŒåŞ成含有不规则大小泡孔的æˆö沫。模温是较重è¦?的工艺参敎ͼŒä¸ä»…影响反应热移走的速度åQŒè¿˜å½±å“æˆåž‹æ—‰™•¿åQŒå¯¹å¯?度、表层厚度及ž®ºå¯¸½E›_®šæ€§éƒ½ä¼šäñ”生不良媄响。发泡成型过½E‹ä¸­ 发æˆö剂反应放热,形成聚合物在填充½Iø™…”中互相推挤、翻滚、爬å?与模兯‚¡¨é¢æŽ¥è§¦ï¼Œæ³¡å­”破裂¾læŒ¤åŽ‹å¡Œæ³¡åŞ成密实层。模å…äh¸©åº?高,则åŞ成极薄的表层åQŒä¸èƒ½æ»¡­‘³ä¸Šè‰²è¦æ±‚,制äšg表面易äñ”生劣 ˜q? æ¸©åº¦ä½Žï¼Œåˆ™å‘泡倍率ž®ï¼Œ¾l“çš®˜q‡åŽšåQŒå°†é™ä½Žçƒ­ä¼ å¯¼çŽ‡ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">5) å›ºåŒ–æ—‰™—´: </strong>泡沫塑料固化后,在一定温度下攄¡½®çš„过½E‹ï¼Œç›?的是让发泡反应进行完全,得到良好的制品。在注入模具内时åQ?nbsp;应把发æˆö料和模具加热åQŒå®Œæˆå‘泡反应后存放于较高温度的环境 中。温度越高,固化旉™—´­‘ŠçŸ­ã€‚温度低åQŒå›ºåŒ–时间长åQŒç†ŸåŒ–不å…?分,泡沫塑料强度达不到应有的要求。原料品¿Uä¸Žåˆ¶äšg形状ž®ºå¯¸ 不同åQŒæ‰€éœ€å›ºåŒ–æ—‰™—´ä¸Žæ¸©åº¦ä¹Ÿä¸åŒã€?nbsp;</span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">6) æ··åˆ: </strong>发æˆö成型æ—Óž¼Œæ··åˆæ•ˆçŽ‡æ˜¯ä¸€ä¸ªå¾ˆå…³é”®å› ç´ ã€‚根据原 料的ç‰ÒŽ€§ï¼Œè°ƒæ•´å‘æˆö讑֤‡çš„计量比例、料温达到充分æ؜合的目的。æ؜合均匀åQŒæˆö沫塑料æˆö孔细而均匀; æ··åˆä¸å¥½åQŒæˆö孔粗而不均匀åQŒç”š 臛_œ¨å±€éƒ¨èŒƒå›´å†…出现化学反应不充分现象,大大影响制品质量ã€?nbsp;</span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;"><strong class="faqe">7) æ¨¡å…·å‘æˆö成型æ—Óž¼Œ</strong>ç”׃ºŽèšé†šå’Œå¼‚氰酸酯反应生成二氧化¼„Ïx°”体,聚合物膨胀产生一定内压力。模具制¾U¦ç€æ³¡æ²«å½¢æ€çš„å?nbsp;展,应有­‘›_¤Ÿçš„强度和内表面光滑度åQŒä»¥ä¾¿ä¿è¯æˆö沫全部填充满åQ?nbsp;不会在发泡后期造成泡沫开裂和中空åQŒä‹É泡沫在模具中分布å?nbsp;匀、密实。还应在合理的位¾|®å¼€è®¾æ³¨æ–™å£ã€æŽ’气口åQŒå¯ä»¥åˆç†é¿å…?nbsp;局部大泡孔和收¾~©çš„出现ã€?/span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;color:#003399;"><strong class="faqe">5 ¾l“语 </strong></span></p><p style="text-indent:2em;"> <span style="font-size:14px;">在不同行业领域中¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫äñ”业得åˆîCº†˜q…速发展。对¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫品质要求越来越高,因此针对不同原料åQŒé€šè¿‡ æ”¹å˜é…æ–¹ã€æé«˜å‘泡设备精准度及发泡成型工艺来制备各种不同 å¯†åº¦ã€ä¸åŒæ€§èƒ½åQŒæ»¡­‘³ä¸åŒåº”用的¼‹¬è´¨èšæ°}酯æˆö沫塑料制品ã€?/span></p></div> </td></tr></table> </td> </tr> <tr><td height="15" 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